Established in 1968, the ANHB serves as a statewide voice for health issues involving Alaska natives. It promotes the physical, social, cultural, mental, and spiritual welfare of Alaska native people. The ANHB also works closely with the commissioner of the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services and advises the director of the Alaska Area Native Health Service.
In September 2015, the ANHB published the findings of a state-funded behavioral health system assessment. The ANHB worked with the Department of Health and Social Services, the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, and the Mat-Su Health Foundation to determine the results. The comprehensive findings determined that the health system depends upon multiple sources of funding to provide offerings to a range of clients. In addition, the assessment found that the system is fragile but robust, and it must increase in capacity to serve the behavioral needs of Alaskans.